Dr H. Aiking

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+31 20 59 89510
a-503, 8a-40
faculteit der bètawetenschappen ( environm&health ), faculteit der bètawetenschappen ( dep. environmental economics )

Experience summary

From 1967‑1973 he studied at the University of Amsterdam, majoring in biochemistry. In 1977 he completed his PhD in microbiology at the same university. From 1978‑1979 he worked as a research associate at Indiana University in Bloomington (IN), USA. Subsequently, he became a KWF (Dutch Cancer Fund) Fellow at the Central Blood Bank Laboratory in Amsterdam. In 1980 he joined the Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. In 1987 he became responsible for IVM research in Environmental Toxicology, in 1993 for the Sector Environmental Quality, and in 1996 for the Programme ‘Environmental Resource Management’. From 1999-2005 he led the interdisciplinary NWO programme PROFETAS (Protein Foods, Environment, Technology And Society). In 2001 he became responsible for IVM research in ‘Chemistry & Food’ as an associate professor. In 2006 he became involved in the FP6 project REMEDE (Resource Equivalency Methods for Assessing Environmental Damage in the EU). He has been leading dozens of multidisciplinary projects on the interface of the natural and the social sciences.

Key networks and memberships

  • Advisor to the Dutch Attorney General in cases of industrial soil pollution since 1987
  • EUROTOX Registered Toxicologist since 1997
  • Netherlands Society of Toxicology
  • Royal Netherlands Society of Chemistry
  • Netherlands Society of Biotechnology
  • Netherlands Society of Environmental Science



Academic training

  • 1973-1977: Doctoral thesis: (University of Amsterdam) ‘Involvement of potassium in the physiology of Candida utilis: a continuous culture study’.
  • 1967-1973: Master’s degree in Chemistry, University of Amsterdam. Major fields: biochemistry, microbiology.

Professional employment history

  • 1980-present: Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.
  • 1980: Central Bloodbank Laboratory, Amsterdam.
  • 1978-1979: Department of Microbiology, Indiana University, Bloomington (Indiana), USA.
  • 1973-1977: Laboratory of Microbiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Selected publications (from over 300)

Link to full publication list at IVM since 1997

Aiking, H., Boer, J. de & Vereijken, J. (Eds.) (2006). Sustainable protein production and consumption: Pigs or peas? Environment and Policy Vol. 45, ISBN 1-4020-4062-8, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 245 pp.

Werff, P. van der, Aiking, H., Kruif, K. de, Linden, J.W. van der, Tromp Meesters, M.I. & Visser, J. (Eds.) (1993). The environment a multidisciplinary concern. Syllabus Environmental Science, 2nd completely revised edition, ISBN 90-5383-077-4, IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 465 pp. 

Aiking, H. & Keulen, R.W. (1989). Environmental Health Impact Assessment. EIA Series Vol. 28, Effect Prediction Series Vol. X, ISBN 90 346 1989 3, Ministry of the Environment, The Hague, 172 pp. (In Dutch). 

Aiking, H., Ester, P., Hordijk, L. & Veen, H. van de (Eds.) (1982). Mosaic of environmental problems. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 384 pp. (In Dutch).

Selected journal articles & book chapters

Schösler, H., Boer, J. de, Boersema, J.J., Aiking, H.: Meat and masculinity among young Chinese, Turkish and Dutch adults in the Netherlands. Appetite 89, 152-159 (2015).

Aiking, H. (2014). Protein production: Planet, profit plus people? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (Suppl.), 483S-489S.

Boer, J. de, Schösler, H., Aiking, H. (2014). “Meatless Mondays” or “less but better”? Exploring strategies to adapt Western meat consumption to health and sustainability challenges. Appetite 76, 120-128.

Van Dooren, C., Marinussen, M., Blonk, H., Aiking, H., Vellinga, P. (2014). Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy 44, 36-46.

Boer, J. de & Aiking, H. (2011). On the merits of plant-based proteins for global food security: Marrying macro and micro perspectives. Ecological Economics 70, 1259-1265.

Aiking, H. (2011). Future protein supply. Trends in Food Science & Technology 22, 112-120.

Evans, E., Aiking, H., Edwards, A. (2011). Reducing variation in GP referral rates through clinical engagement and peer review of referrals ‑ A service improvement project. Quality in Primary Care 19, 263-272.

Martin-Ortega, J., Brouwer, R. & Aiking, H. (2011). Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive. Journal of Environmental Management 92, 1461-1470.

Aiking, H., Brans, E.H.P. & Ozdemiroglu, E. (2010). Industrial Risk and Natural Resources: The EU Environmental Liability Directive as a watershed? Environmental Liability 18, 5-12.

Dornburg, V., Vuuren, D. van, Ven, G. van de, Langeveld, H., Meeusen, M., Banse, M., Oorschot, M. van, Ros, J., Born, G.J. van den, Aiking, H., Londo, M., Mozaffarian, H., Verweij, P., Lysen, E. & Faaij, A. (2010). Bioenergy Revisited: Key Factors in Global Potentials of Bioenergy. Energy & Environmental Science 3, 258-267.

Dellink, R., Elzen, M. den, Aiking, H., Bergsma, E., Berkhout, F., Dekker, T., Gupta, J. (2009). Sharing the burden of adaptation financing. Global Environmental Change 19, 411-421.

Boer, J. de, Boersema, J.J. & Aiking, H. (2009). Consumers’ motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat. Ecological Economics 68, 850-860.

Boer, J. de, Helms, M. & Aiking, H. (2006). Protein consumption and sustainability: Diet diversity in EU-15. Ecological Economics 59, 267-274.

Aiking, H., Zhu, X., Ierland, E. van, Willemsen, F.H., Yin, X. & Vos, J. (2006). Changes in consumption patterns: Options and impacts of a transition in protein foods. Chapter 10 in: Brouwer, F. & McCarl, B. (Ed.), Agriculture and climate beyond 2015: A new perspective on future land use patterns. Environment and Policy Vol. 46, ISBN 1-4020-4063-6, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 171-189.

Aiking, H. & Boer, J. de (2004). Food sustainability: Diverging interpretations. British Food Journal 106, 359-365.

Aiking, H. (2001). Contaminants old and new – Innovation in prevention. Journal of Preventive Medicine 9, 41-51.

Aiking, H. & Vellinga, P. (2000). Environment and Food in a Changing World ‑ Research Issues. In: Boekestein, A., Diederen, P., Jongen, W., Rabbinge, R. & Rutten, H. (Eds.), Towards an Agenda for Agricultural Research in Europe. ISBN 90-74134-80-7, Wageningen Press, Wageningen, 199-207.

Branisteanu, R. & Aiking, H. (1998). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Occupational vs. Urban Environmental Air. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 129, 533-536.

Aiking, H., Dorland, C. & Hoor, F. ten (1997). Food: Health plus Environment - A Combined Index for Food Products. Voeding 58, 21-24 (In Dutch).

Sol, V.M., Lammers, P.E.M., Aiking, H., Boer, J. de & Feenstra, J.F. (1995). An integrated environmental index for application in land‑use zoning. Environmental Management 19, 457-467.

Aiking, H., Acker, M.B. van, Scholten, R.J.P.M., Feenstra, J.F. & Valkenburg, H.A. (1994). Swimming pool chlorination: a health hazard? Toxicology Letters 72, 375-380.

Wegener, J.W.M., Schaick, M.J.M. van & Aiking, H. (1992). Active biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by means of mosses. Environmental Pollution 75, 15‑18.

Govers, H., Hegeman, J.H.F. & Aiking, H. (1991). Long‑term environmental and health effects of persistent micro‑pollutants. In: Opschoor, J.B. & Pearce, D.W. (Eds.), Persistent pollutants: Economics and policy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 21-32.

Aiking, H., Govers, H. & Riet, J. van ’t (1985). Detoxification of mercury, cadmium and lead in Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418 growing in continuous culture. Applied Environmental Microbiology 50, 1262-1267.

Govers, H., Ruepert, C. & Aiking, H. (1984). Quantitative structure‑activity relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: correlation between molecular connectivity, physico‑chemical properties, bioconcentration and toxicity in Daphnia Pulex. Chemosphere 13, 227‑236.

Selected research reports

Underwood, E., Baldock, D., Aiking, H., Buckwell, A., Dooley, E., Frelih-Larsen, A., Naumann, S., O’Connor, C., Poláková, J., Tucker, G. (2013). Options for sustainable food and agriculture in the EU. Synthesis report of the STOA Project “Technology Options for Feeding 10 Billion People” (144 pp.), Institute for European Environmental Policy, London/Brussels.

Sonigo, P., Bain, J., Tan, A., Mudgal, S., Murphy-Bokern, D., Shields, L., Aiking, H., Verburg, P., Erb, K.H., Kastner, T. (2012). Assessment of resource efficiency in the food cycle. Final FP6 Report ENV.G.4/FRA/2008/0112 (135 pp.). Paris, France.

Beukering, P. van, Bouma, J., Verburg, P., Huitema, D., Aiking, H., Vermaat, J., Brouwer, R., Berkhout, F. (2011). Integrated water management, ecosystem services and food security: Scoping study. IvM Report R‑11/11 (21 pp.) for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dept. Development Cooperation. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Blonk, H., Pluimers, J., Broekema, R., Latesteijn, H. van, Spaans, L., Aiking, H., Kuik, O., Drunen, M.A. van (2011). Towards sustainable food production: The economic dimension. Report for the Dutch House of Representatives (130 pp.). Blonk Milieu Advies, Gouda. (In Dutch).

Drunen, M.A. van, Beukering, P. van, Aiking, H. (2010). The true price of meat. IvM Report W‑10/02a/EN (21 pp.). Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Boer, J. de, Aiking, H. (2009). Frames for sustainable food systems. IvM Report R‑09/16 (38 pp.). Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. (In Dutch).

Vellinga, T., Laar, H. van, Thomassen, M., Boer, I. de, Berkhout, P., Aiking, H. (2009). Environmental effects of animal feedstuffs. Report ASG Nr. 205 (46 pp.). WUR-ASG, Lelystad. (In Dutch).

Boer, J. de, Willemsen, F. & Aiking, H. (2003). Food safety, communication and behaviour: Analysis of four recent incidents. IVM Report (E-03/06), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 40 p. (In Dutch).

Sol, V.M., Peters, S.W.M., Aiking, H. (1999). Toxic waste storage sites in EU countries ‑ A preliminary risk inventory. www.panda.org/downloads/europe/toxics-rep.pdf IvM / WWF Rapp. R‑99/04 (80 pp.), ISBN 90-5383-656-X. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Slager, L.K., Sprengers, S.A., Zuidema, G., Aiking, H. (1994). Biodiversity and climate change. Part II: Influence of population growth, meat consumption and climate change on natural vegetation: a scenario analysis. IvM Report R-94/10 (40 pp.). Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.

Invited lectures

Aiking, H.: Food Sustainability and Food Security - Why Is Protein Pivotal? Invited lecture at the BIOFACH 2015 Seminar “Holland Organic 2030 - towards an economic, ecological and social organic agriculture”, Nuremberg, Germany, 12 February 2015.

Aiking, H.: Healthy Food for All - Do we need a systems change in bioeconomy chains? Invited keynote lecture at the 3rd Bioeconomy Forum - High Level Debates on Trends in Bioeconomy and Science Communication in HORIZON 2020, Brussels, Belgium, 3 December 2014.

Aiking, H.: Sustainable Future Proteins - Options, Environmental Impacts and Consumer Aspects. Invited lecture at the DECHEMA Symposium on alternative protein sources for food and feed, Frankfurt, Germany, 17 November 2014.

Aiking, H.: Insights into Sustainable Proteins: Past, Present, and Future. Invited lecture at the 3rd ProTerra Foundation Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 15 October 2014.

Aiking, H.: Sustainable proteins: Challenges & change strategies. Invited lecture at the 6thSustainable Foods Summit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 5 June 2014.

Aiking, H.: Protein production: Planet, profit plus people? Invited lecture at the 6th International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition, Loma Linda University, USA,
24-26 February 2013.

Aiking, H.: Protein consumption and sustainability: Diet diversity in Europe. Invited lecture at the 11th FENS (Federation of European Nutrition Societies) European Nutrition Conference, Madrid, Spain, 26-29 October 2011.

Aiking, H.: Future protein supply and the EU. Invited lecture at the 6th CIGR Section VI International Symposium “Towards a Sustainable Food Chain: Food Process, Bioprocessing and Food Quality Management”, Nantes, France, 18-20 April 2011.

Aiking, H.: Future protein supply. Invited lecture at the EFFoST Conference New Challenges in Food Preservation: Processing, Safety, Sustainability, Budapest, Hungary, 10-13 November 2009.

Aiking, H.: The food system in turmoil – Sustainability provides opportunities. Invited lecture and Co-chair of the concluding Sustainability session, 3rd International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks, Innsbruck-Igls, Austria, 16-20 February 2009.

Aiking, H.: The European Liability Directive (ELD), the role of the re-insurance industry, the REMEDE project and the Doñana National Park. Invited lecture at the 4th General ALARM meeting (Assessing Large Scale Environmental Risks for Biodiversity with Tested Methods - in EU-FP6), Seville, Spain, 14 January 2008.

Aiking, H.: Case Study Boliden-Doñana-Accident. Invited lecture at the Expert hearing on Biodiversity/Natural Resource Damage Assessment and the EC Environmental Liability Directive, Swiss Re Centre for Global Dialogue, Zurich, Switzerland, 13 November 2007.

Aiking, H.: Modelling in LCA. Invited Session Chairman & Scientific Committee Member (review of 57 abstracts) for the 5th International Conference on LCA in Foods, SIK, Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-26 April 2007.

Aiking, H.: Transition towards a biobased world – Sustainability as a driving force. In: Proceedings World Congress on Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocessing (WCIB): Linking Biotechnology, Chemistry and Agriculture to Create New Value Chains, p. 35 (Invited lecture), Orlando, USA, 20-22 April 2005.

Aiking, H.: Sustainable options for food production and the nitrogen cycle. Invited speaker and session chairman on the Gordon Research Conference on Industrial Ecology, Oxford, UK, 1-6 August 2004.

Aiking, H.: Systems analysis and food production – Environmental, technological and societal aspects. In: Proceedings FOOD 21 Symposium - Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption, pp. 128-132 (Invited lecture), Uppsala, Sweden, 26-28 April 2004.