Prof. M.W. Hofkes

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+31 20 59 89563
school of business & economics ( ruimtelijke economie )
Full Professor


Marjan Hofkes is full Professor of Environmental Economics at Vrije Universiteit (VU) Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration (FEWEB) and Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM). Additionally, she serves as Head of Studies Economics of the  Bachelor programme Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) at VU Amsterdam. In that capacity she is also member of the management team of the John Stuart Mill College (JSM) in which the PPE programme is embedded.

Marjan Hofkes obtained her doctoral degree in Econometrics in 1987 (cum laude) and she received her PhD in Mathematical Economics in 1991, from VU Amsterdam.

Among other advisory roles, she was member of the committee on Sustainable Development of the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands (SER).

Marjan Hofkes has extensive research and research management experience across a number of fields, including economic modelling, economic growth, labour market economics and income policy, ranging from pure academic to policy supporting research. Her more recent research focuses on the economics of sustainable development, environment-economy trade-offs and economic effects of floods. She was one of the founders of TPEdigitaal, a Dutch electronic journal of Political Economy.


Economic Modelling, Environmental Economics, Environment-Economy Trade-off, Green Accounting, Economics of Sustainable Development, Economic Effects of Floods.

Academic training

1987-1991PhD thesis ‘Modelling and Computation of General Equilibrium’, VU University Amsterdam
1984-1987Master’s (‘doctoraal’) Degree in Econometrics cum laude; major field mathematical economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, VU University Amsterdam
1981-1984Bachelor’s (‘kandidaats’) Degree in Econometrics cum laude, VU University Amsterdam


Professional employment history

2006-presentProfessor of Environmental Economics, VU University Amsterdam (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration and Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM))
2005-2010Professor of Economics of Sustainable Development, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences
2004-2009Deputy Director, IVM, VU University Amsterdam
2004Acting Director, IVM, VU University Amsterdam
2002-2009Head of the Department of Environmental Economics, IVM
2001Deputy Head of the Department of Economics and Technology, IVM
1999-2006Associate Professor Environmental Economics, IVM
1999-2004Programme Manager ‘Modelling and Economic Analysis’, IVM
1997-1999Senior Economist, IVM
1993-1997Post-doctoral researcher, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, VU University Amsterdam
1991-1993Policy Advisor, Ministry of Finance, Den Haag; policy advisor of the Minister of Finance in the field of labour market and income policy
1982-1991Various research positions at the Department of Econometrics, VU University Amsterdam

Supervision of PhD students

Graduated: Trond G. Husby (defended 22 February 2016), In Chang Hwang (defended 10 December 2014), Samuel J. Okullo (defended 24 June 2013), Thijs Dekker (defended 18 September 2012), Rob Dellink (defended 27 November 2003; co-supervisor), Peter Mulder (defended 6 November 2003; co-supervisor).

Current: Derk van Ree, Andreas Coester, Theodorus Chatzivasileiadis, Brian Colgan.


2001: Hennipman Award 2001 for the best bi-annual article in ‘De Economist’.

Selected publications

Husby, T.G., de Groot, H.L.F., Hofkes, M.W. & Filatova, T. (2017). Flood Protection and Endogenous Sorting of Households: the role of credit constraints. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. Published online 11 August 2015.

Hwang, I.C., Tol, R.S.J. & Hofkes, M.W. (2016). Fat-tailed risk about climate change and climate policy. Energy Policy, 89, 25–35.

Okullo, S.J., Reynès, F. & Hofkes, M.W. (2015). Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production. Resource and Energy Economics, 40, 36–56.

Husby, T.G., de Groot, H.L.F., Hofkes, M.W. & Droes, M.I. (2014). Do floods have permanent effects? Evidence from the Netherlands. Journal of Regional Science, 54(3), 355–377.

Safarzynska, K., Brouwer, R. & Hofkes, M.W. (2013). Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events. Ecological Economics, 88, 108–118.

Dekker, T., Brouwer, R., Hofkes, M. & Moeltner, K. (2011). The effect of risk context on the value of statistical life: a Bayesian meta-model. Environmental and Resource Economics, 49(4), 597-624.

Kuik, O. & Hofkes, M. (2010). Border adjustment for European emissions trading: competitiveness and carbon leakage, Energy Policy, 38(4), 1741–1748.

Brouwer, R. & Hofkes, M (2008). Integrated hydro-economic modelling: Approaches, key issues and future research directions. Special Issue Ecological Economics. Integrated River Basin Modelling for Effective and Sustainable Water Management. Ecological Economics, 16–22.

Gerlagh, R., Dellink, R.B., Hofkes, M.W. & Verbruggen, H. (2002). A measure of sustainable national income for the Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 41, 157–174.

Hofkes, M.W. (2001). Environmental Policies: short term versus long term effects. Environmental and Resource Economics, 20, 1‑26.

Bouman, M., Gautier, P.A. & Hofkes, M.W. (2000). Do firms time their pollution abatement investments optimally? De Economist, 148, 71–86. (Hennipman Award 2001).

Hofkes, M.W. (1996). Modelling Sustainable Development: an economy-ecology integrated model, Economic Modelling, 13, 333–353.


Ancillary activities

No ancillary activities
Last changes Ancillary activities: Amsterdam 06 februari 2017